Second thoughts on the mysterious origins of AK

There are times when the honest historian has to put his hand up and say: forgive me, for I was wrong. Prompted by a sharp dig from Ron Pattinson, I’ve finally withdrawn a piece I wrote six years ago about the origins of the beer designation AK, in part because research by Ron has made my stance untenable. I suggested that the K in AK came from koyt, the name of a hopped beer found in the Low Countries and Northern Germany in the 15th century and later, and the A was from ankel, the word in Old Flemish for “single”. “Single koyt” certainly existed, and was the name of a lower-strength beer, the stronger version being called “double koyt”. But there’s no actual evidence at all to link “single koyt” with AK, which was a very popular designation for a comparatively light-gravity, lightly hopped (or at least not heavily hopped) pale bitter beer in Victorian England, and which is still around as a (now rare) beer name today. Good historians don’t make evidence-free suggestions.

McMullen's AK posterThere is certainly evidence AK was once a popular name for a beer. In the very early 1970s, you would still have found several beers called AK. Fremlin’s of Faversham, then owned by Whitbread, made one. So did another Whitbread-owned former independent, Strong’s of Romsey, in Hampshire. In Hertfordshire two brewers, McMullen’s of Hertford and Rayment’s of Furneux Pelham, also made beers called AK. These, and the Fremlin’s and Strong’s AKs were sold as light milds. In the Courage empire, the ex-Hole’s brewery at Newark in Nottinghamshire brewed an AK bitter, while the group’s Bristol brewery sold an AK that was a primed version of its George’s bitter, made for customers of the former Phillips brewery in Newport, Monmouthshire, which had closed in 1968. Just before it closed in 1985, Simpkiss of Brierley Hill in the West Midlands started brewing an AK light bitter.

At least three brewers also sold beers called KK: Greene King, which brewed a light mild under that name at the former Wells and Winch brewery in Biggleswade; Ind Coope, which made KK light mild at its Romford brewery; and Hardys and Hansons of Kimberley, Nottinghamshire, which sold a keg beer called KK.

What all these beers had in common was that they were light, in both colour and gravity, and also lightly hopped. Today only McMullen’s AK survives, and though it has risen in gravity since the early 1970s, from 1033 to 1035, and is now described as a “bitter”, it is still comparatively light and lightly hopped (with WGV, Whitbread Goldings Variety).

However, if you look at Victorian brewers’ advertisements, it becomes clear that AK, was a very widespread name for a beer. More than a dozen other brewers in Hertfordshire besides McMullen’s and Rayment’s once made an AK. A single edition of the Richmond and Twickenham Times, dated July 8 1893, carries advertisements from five different brewers in south and west London, four of whom offered a beer called AK or KK.

Whitstable Times and Herne Bay Herald 1897 – XXK and AK, bitter ales, not stock ales
Whitstable Times and Herne Bay Herald 1897 – XXK and AK, bitter ales, not stock ales

The noticeable point about these advertisements is that they (almost) all give AK the same price, one shilling a gallon, implying a strength of around 1045-1055 OG. The descriptions of AK are pretty consistent as well: “light bitter ale”, “light sparkling ale”, “family bitter ale”, “light pale ale” and so on. One of the few brewers not to sell AK for one and a half pence wholesale was actually the earliest I’ve found, the Stafford Brewery, which was selling AK Ale, “a delicate bitter ale”, in 1855 at 14 pence a gallon. But, again, the beer was clearly not heavy, albeit bitter. The idea of AK as a low-strength pale ale is confirmed by the few written references to the beer. Professor Charles Graham in his talk to the Society of Chemical Industry in 1881 gave the original gravity of AK as 1045, with an alcohol-by-weight percentage of 4.3, very much as the bottom end of the Victorian beer strength league. The Burton brewer James Herbert said of AK ale in his book The Art of Brewing, published in 1871:

This class of ale has come very much into use, mostly for private families, it being a light tonic ale, and sent out by most brewers at one shilling per gallon. The gravity of this Ale is usually brewed at 20lbs [that is, 1056 OG]

Crowley’s brewery in Croydon High Street in 1900 described its AK in one of its advertisements as “a Bitter Ale of sound quality with a delicate Hop flavour”. The Victorian journalist Alfred Barnard in 1889 gave almost identical tasting notes to Crowley’s on the “AK shilling ale” brewed by WJ Rogers at the Jacob Street brewery in Bristol: “most pleasant to the palate … a bright sparkling beverage of a rich golden colour and possesses a nice delicate hop flavour.” (Rogers actually used the letters AK as its company trademark.) When he visited Thompson & Son’s brewery in Walmer, Kent, Barnard wrote: ” We were much pleased with the AK light bitter – a delicious drink, clean to the palate and well flavoured with the hop.” The brewing books of Garne & Sons of Burford, Oxfordshire in 1912 show AK being brewed at an OG of 1040 and with a colour of 14, a reddish-brown hue. ( PA for comparison, was brewed to an OG of 1056 and with a colour of 18, a darker medium brown.)

So where did the name AK come from? In the First World War, drinkers joked that AK stood for Asquith’s Knockout. Herbert Asquith was Prime Minister in 1914 when the tax on the standard barrel of beer took off like a Fokker eindekker, from seven shillings and ninepence to 23 shillings, in order to help pay for fighting the Kaiser. Weaker beers paid less tax, of course, and AK was always weaker than standard bitters, leaving it a more affordable “knockout” than regular beers. (“Squiffy” Asquith was also notorious for being fond of his drink.) Unfortunately, AK as a name for a type of beer is found at least as long ago as 1855, when Asquith was only three years old. Another suggestion is that AK was invented by a Victorian brewer called Arthur King, and took his initials, a tale found at both Hole’s of Newark and Courage in Bristol. The problem with this story is that no such brewer has ever been traced – Arthur King seems to be as mythical as King Arthur – and it fails to cover AK’s sister beer, KK. As Roger Protz once said, who invented that one – King Kong?

Rayment’s claimed AK meant Ale for Keeping. Certainly, Ron Pattinson’s research has pretty much proved that, as far as London brewers were concerned, a beer with “K” in its name, or at least multiple Ks, was a well-hopped keeping or stock beer. To quote from his blog:

In the middle of the 19th century, Barclay Perkins brewed two sets of Ales: X Ales that were sold mild and K Ales that were sold matured. X, XX, XXX and XXXX. Then KK, KKK, KKKK. The equivalent beers (XX and KK, XXX and KKK) were exactly the same gravity, but the K Ales had about 50% more hops.

A couple more examples: Mann, Crossman and Paulin in the East End of London brewed a KKKK ale, and Alfred Barnard drank some in 1888: “Two years old, of a rich brown colour and with a Madeira odour, a good generous drink for those who can stand a full-bodied beer.” Barnard also revealed that Mann’s brewed a London stock ale they called KKK. Taylor Walker of Limehouse, East London brewed “KKK Burton”, which again would have been a strong stock ale. Outside London, Adey and White of St Albans made KKK stock ale and the Tadcaster Tower Brewery in Yorkshire sold KKK “Old Tom”, both costing 15s a firkin, meaning they must have been around 1090 OG.


Burge & Co Windsor KXXX stock ale from 1885 – that's K for keeping all right, and M for mild on the MXX mild ale
Burge & Co Windsor KXXX stock ale from 1885 – that’s K for keeping all right, and M for mild on the MXX mild ale

However, the problem is that AK and KK, and the rather rarer K, are always described as light bitters, which would not, surely, have been keeping ales. Yes, Mann’s brewed KKKK and KKK stock ales, but a Mann’s advert from 1898 also shows KK medium bitter ale at 10s 6d a firkin, about 1055 OG, and K light bitter ale at 9s 6d a firkin, about 1045 OG, as well as AKK Family Pale Ale at 1s 2d a gallon, around 1055 OG again, and AK Dinner Ale at, yes, 1s a gallon.

So: the K in KKK, and KKKK, and XXXK, and the other strong beers with K in their name, stands for “keeping” – there can be little doubt about that. But the K in AK and KK? K-for-keeping doesn’t seem to apply here, because they weren’t keeping beers. And what about the K Mild, ten pence a gallon, sold by Lucas, Ledbetter and Bird of High Wycombe in 1894, and the K Mild Ale sold by the Heavitree Brewery of Exeter in 1895 for 1s 2d a gallon? Or the K Light Ale Collier Brothers of Walthamstow were selling for ten pence a gallon in 1890, and the K Tonic Ale A Gordon & Go of Caledonian Road, Islington sold for the same sum in 1889? Cleary K doesn’t stand for “keeping” here. Again in 1889, Lewis & Ridley of Leamington seemed to be using “K” as equal to half an X, with XXXK mild ale following XXXX strong ale, then XXX mild ale, XXK mild ale, XX mild and and X mild ale. Again, these were milds, not keeping beers. Henry Lovibond & Son of the Cannon brewery, Lillie Road, Fulham actually called its shilling-a-gallon AK “mild bitter” in 1885.

K as, apparently, half an X, from 1889
K as, apparently, half an X, from 1889

There is evidence that the K designation was more common in the south than elsewhere in England. Rose’s brewery of Malton, Yorkshire produced an AK, and the Tadcaster Tower brewery had a range that included four K beers. Robinson’s of Stockport sold AK Ale at the beginning of the 20th century. But few other brewers north of Newark, in the East Midlands, seem to have used Ks. In 1898 the Brewers’ Journal said the X mark was “almost universal in provincial towns, the alternative K being equally common in the London district”. But this does not help us much in finding out the origins of AK.

At least the process by which the K beers that survived to near the end of the 20th century became known as milds, when the style started out as a type of bitter ale, is easy to explain. Mild by the 1930s means to drinkers a low-gravity, low-hops, cheaper beer. In the Great Gravity Drop during and after the First World War, AKs fell to around 1030-1033 OG, and cost (in the 1930s) five (old) pence a pint, the same as best mild and less than “standard” bitter. Taylor Walker, the East London brewer, actually advertised its verson as “5d AK” probably because it sold cheaper than London dark mild, at six pence a pint. Being low-gravity, cheap and light on the hops, these AKs and KKs fell within the “modern” definition of milds.  Fordham’s of Ashwell, North Hertfordshire in 1934 sold XX mild and AX bitter at four pence a pint, XXX mild and AK bitter at five pence a pint, stout at six pence, PA bitter and XXXX at seven pence, IPA at eight pence and OO old ale at one shilling. The OG of Fordham’s AK was by now around 1030.

McMullen's AK Mild Bitter pumpclip from the 1950s
McMullen’s AK Mild Bitter pumpclip from the 1950s

All those other AKs eventually vanished with the brewerrs that made them, leaviong only McMullen’s. At one stage, McMullen was describing AK on pump clips as a “mild bitter”, though the beer was sold in polypins in the 1980s as “Trad bitter”. The company dropped the description “mild” for AK only in the early 1990s.

So, although we can still drink AK, since there is no evidence to support the koyt derivation, and little support for the idea that the K in low-gravity, lightly hopped AK could have meant “keeping” the way it does in KKKK and KKK, I’m afraid we still haeeve to solve the mystery of where the K – and indeed the A – in AK come from.

Update: Bailey of Boak and Bailey has been doing some excellent searching through old digitised newspapers and pushed back the earliest mention of AK to 1846, in an advertisement from the Chelmsford Chronicle of October 23 1846 that lists Ind Coope AK. A slightly later ad, from the Ipswich Journal of June 15 1850, lists under “Romford Ales” (Ind Coope again, almost certainly) “AK, a light bitter ale” at 19 shillings for 18 gallons, as well as XK bitter ale and XXK “Ale” at 24 shillings and 31 shillings a kilderkin respectively: only the XXK looks like a “proper” stock ale, at perhaps 1080 to 1090 OG. An even more interesting ad from the same paper three years later, June 18 1853, refers to “The Romford A.K. or Light Bitter Beer, so much in request for Summer beverage”, which can be supplied for one shilling a gallon.

The earliest known – so far – reference to AK, from 1846
The earliest known – so far – reference to AK, from 1846

34 thoughts on “Second thoughts on the mysterious origins of AK

  1. Truman’s, in Brick Lane, in the 1960’s brewed a cask ale (LK) which was London Keeper. The bottled light ale (Trumans light) was brewed as BLK or bottled London Keeper. Both were brewed at OG 1030.9 and lightly primed post fermentation.
    Peter Krafft (ex Truman’s Brewer)

  2. Martyn, complete and thoughtful as always. The single koyt explanation is still useful, not as a theory, but as useful conjecture. Conjecture has its place when trying to reconstruct events of so long ago especially if no other good explanation exists. It simply may be true that a bitter beer, not aged, was called that informally for a long time and the name finally emerged in commerce, leading to confusion today when bracketed with the KK beers and other keeping ales which had their origin in the ale tradition (vs. beer).

    However, I think A.K. did meaning ale for keeping because, first, a contemporary brewer said that (I have noted it before) and it can’t be dismissed as “a guess” because it attested to a contemporary understanding. Second, a number of late 1800’s writers, going from memory here but including Graham and Moritz I believe, explained that some bitter beers received longer storage than mild ales but less than the export pale ale or best quality pale ale. This is why the “k” in AK can still mean keeping, a keeping for longer than the mild running ales. Even if you kept them 2 weeks longer before sending out, it is still a keeping in relative terms.

    Here is a suggestion to get further into the root of AK:

    In this court case, which I know you are aware of, the meaning of IPA and AK was considered because important to the result. The brewer here stated plainly that A.K. was a bitter beer, classed with IPA except sold in a different channel normally and clearly the less expensive version. I’d wager that AK was stored longer than the typical mild ale of the time. Why don’t you unearth the court record, it should still be available somewhere, I’d think the solicitors might have submitted written arguments which survived which discuss the further meaning of “AK”. I am not certain where the records would be, perhaps one of your readers who is an English solicitor, or has a spouse or close friend who is, might suggest how to unearth that record.


  3. A is an indication of strength: 1 down from X.

    I’m pretty sure the K does stand for Keeping. It’s often found in Bitter designations, even though many of them weren’t really stored long.

    1. My gut instinct (which is worth exactly 0…) is that you’re right: beers brewed for keeping were heavily hopped, and thus more bitter; so, over time, K just came to mean light and/or bitter, regardless of whether the beer in question had been kept or not.

  4. As for the mild k’s, there was also a mild bitter (at least one) that has been uncovered… My feeling is with the shading of the AK’s and dinner beers (gem beers, etc. – all lighter pale ales) into the unstored category, the meanings got confused, and that is why for a long time McMullen called its AK a mild.

  5. Incidentally, great find of table ale and table beer in the Rigden ad (1893), surely the latest date both of these – or even one of them – appeared in a public advertisement.


  6. I would be surprised if the Hardy’s&Hanson’s KK doesn’t simply represent “Kimberley Keg” as the brewery was known as the Kimberley Brewery , that being its location.

    1. My Dad told me years ago that it was short for Kimberley Keg and was essentially H&H’s Kimberley best bitter delivered via keg rather than cask. It tended to be found in clubs rather than pubs and was delivered in some places by an electric pressure system that showed the next pint or half in a glass cylinder on the bar.

  7. Hi Martyn
    Kudos for openly retracting an article and being honest about the progression of the debate you have been having with Ron ( and yourself no doubt!)

    It would seem strange that the ‘K’ would have a different meaning in AK than in the other K beers, and I suppose ‘keeping ‘ is relative. Two weeks or two years, if the beer was kept any longer than another then it might warrant the use of ‘K’.

    My only thoughts on the ‘A’ is that it stands for ‘Almost’! …… Almost a Keeping beer? (tongue firmly in cheek BTW!)

    Thanks for an interesting read

    1. I would have thought the obvious answer would be that AK stood for Ale Keeper. For information, the beers Truman’s brewed in the 1960’s (in London) were SA (Strong ale); KLPA (Keg London pale ale; LPA (London Pale Ale) ; LELA(London Export Light Ale cans); LK(London Keeper; BLK(Best/bottled London Keeper-bottled as light ale); Ale(no abbreviation); OW(Old Writtle; BA(Brown Ale); LM(London Mild); ES(Eagle Stout); MS(Malt Stout); S1(Stock Ale); R1(Runner 1): R2(Runner 2). From Burton add PA1 and PA2 (Burton bitters) and P1B(Ben Truman). As you can see there is no brain surgery needed to decipher most of them.


      1. “I would have thought the obvious answer would be that AK stood for Ale Keeper.”

        But English doesn’t put the adjective after the noun – and AK is took weak and lowly-hopped to be a keeeper. So no – it’s not obvious at all.

          1. None of the other Burton-brewed beers have that suffix.

            In 1877 there were 5 different versions of P1: P1, P1 B, P1 K, P1 R and P1 S. R will be Runner, K Keeper, S Stock and B Bottling.

          2. Well, again, for the record as the discussion has resumed with others involved, here is what an English brewer thought in 1870:


            Look in the paragraph entitled Bitter Ale (p. 234), the second one, by the anonymous “Aroma”. He said it meant “keeping ale”. His description of bitter ale manufacture is very detailed and shows his deep experience in English brewing. It isn’t incontrovertible “proof”, but it is good evidence of the contemporary understanding.

          3. McMullens state on their website that the ‘K’ was equal to half an ‘X’ and referred to strength which is why AK beers are relatively low in alcohol. They claim the ‘K’ was used as it looks like half an ‘X’. I wonder if they have any historical documents to confirm this assertion?

  8. Staying on the subject of beer designations, but moving from K to B, can I ask Martyn, as the acknowledged expert on Flowers/Greens, about the Luton-brewed beer known as BB? This was brewed under the Flowers label in the 1960s (and it may well originally have been a J W Green brew), and was still being brewed as a keg beer under Whitbread in the new Luton brewery at least until around 1980, when I had to visit the brewery for a meeting. I recall that the brewing staff told me that BB was a light mild, but they either didn’t know what BB stood for, or I didn’t ask. I suspect that this may have been the beer referred to by Frank Baillie as “Best Bitter – London area only” in his “Beerdrinker’s Companion”, as I never came across any beer called Whitbread Best Bitter at that time. If it was the same beer, it seems implausible that BB stood for Best Bitter, and Baillie may just have made that assumption.

    It would also be interesting to know when Flowers Keg was finally discontinued: did it survive the closure of the original Park Street West brewery? I suspect it may have done, as references to it appeared in various pub guides until the very early 1970s, but I am pretty sure it had disappeared completely by 1972, when I began to take an interest in beer. I believe the last beer to be labelled as Flowers (until the name was revived in 1981) was Flowers Special Bitter, which seemed to take the place of Trophy Bitter in the Whitbread Flowers (Cheltenham) trading area. I never saw it served by handpump, and it may have been a keg only (as opposed to top-pressure) beer. However, it disappeared in the first half of 1973 and was replaced by Trophy Bitter (though it may well have been the same beer, in keeping with Whitbread’s policy of calling a multiplicity of local beers Trophy Bitter).

    1. Sorry, TG, I’m very late replying to these. I wouldn’t call myself an expert on Flowers/Greens, I’ve just written more than anyone else. There’s masses I don’t know. Including whern Flower’s Keg died. I just about remember BBbeing on sale in Whitbread pubs, and it being a mild, but that’s it. Sorry …

    2. My recollection is that the confusingly named “BB”, sold by Whitbread and latterly brewed at Luton, was a mild beer (definitely not best bitter). It was named by the original brewer called Bright – hence Bright’s Brew, abbreviated to “BB”. It was a favourite of mine.

  9. Hi Martyn. Thanks as always for your honest and painstaking historical analysis. Researching 1940s pubs, by chance I came across a stock photo taken in the Admiral Napier, Ramsgate, in October 1945. A sign on the wall says “Try our KK Best Bitter”. The story of the photo is also rather fascinating. The photo can be viewed at: by entering photo no. B5B0TX.
    Best wishes, Ray Ashman

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